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folder1 MPTUO1a: Unit 1 Definitions
Week 1 / Unit 1

Review these definitions for Week 1 / Unit 1 of the Introduction to Psychology course.

document  Unit 1 Definitions

  • Debriefing. The explained questioning of research participants after an experiment, who are typically asked for their comments and how they experienced the research setting.” [2]
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  • d-prime. A statistic for estimating the sensitivity of an observer in noisy situations.” [2]
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  • Dependent Variable (DV). “The outcome variable (results of the experiment).” [1]
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  • Experimental Method. The true experiment, which involves randomized assignment of subjects, standardized instructions, and at least one IV and one DV. There are several other types of research that are not as rigorous.” [1]
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  • Experimenter Bias. A research bias that occurs when an experimenter’s beliefs influence his or her perception.” [1]
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  • Hypothesis. “A testable form of a theory.” [1]
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  • Independent Variable (IV). “The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter (input variable).” [1]
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  • Introspection. The technique of looking inside to gather data.” [2]
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  • Phrenology. A discredited theory that bumps on the skull could predict character or personality traits.” [2]
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  • Placebo Effect. A research bias that involves the influencing of performance due to the subject’s belief about the results.” [1]
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  • Psychophysics. The interaction of the mind (psyche) with the physical world (physics). An early reputable ancestor of psychology that is still taught in upper level psychology courses.” [2]
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  • Industrial-organizational Psychologist. Works with businesses and organizations for productivity, effectiveness, efficiency, and to assist with employees and customers.” [1]
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  • Practitioner. Typically a counseling or clinical psychologist, works with individuals, couples, families, and small groups to lessen depression and anxiety, and to improve motivation and resilience.” [1]
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  • Research Bias. Anything that can potentially damage an experiment’s results. There are three main biases: Selection Bias; Placebo Effect; and Experimenter Bias.” [1]
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  • Research Psychologist. Mainly in research organizations or universities, designs and performs research to improve understanding of human behavior and thinking, emotional development and the impact of these topics on human interactions.” [1]
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  • Selection Bias. A research bias that occurs when differences between groups are present at the beginning of the experiment.” [1]
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  • Standardization. “Refers to a specific set of instructions. The purpose is twofold: Firstly, to ensure that all subjects are given the same instructions and presented with the experiment in the same manner; and to ensure that all data is collected in the same way for all subjects. Secondly, to inform future experimenters of exactly what the original experimenters did, so that the future experimenters can replicate the experiment. To truly validate an experiment’s results, it needs to be replicated by other experimenters with different subjects.” [1]
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  • Theory. “A general principle proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related.’ In other words, a theory is an ‘idea about a relationship.’ In order to test whether a theory is correct or not, we need to do research. Theories are stated in general terms, so we need to define more accurately what we will be doing in our experiment.” [1]

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Sources

  1. Heffner, Dr. Christopher L. (2001, April 1). Psychology 101. All Psych. https://allpsych.com/psychology101/
  2. Dewey, Dr. Russell A. (2017). Psychology: An Introduction. Psych Web. https://www.psywww.com/intropsych/
  3. The American Psychological Association’s Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools (APA TOPSS) course template.